Amudat District was carved out of Nakapiripirit District in 2010. The district is administered by the Amudat District Administration, with headquarters at Amudat. The main ethnic group in the district are the Pokot, a group that shares a common culture and customs with the Pokot and Kalenjin of Kenya. The district is part of the Karamoja sub-region. The district that constitute Karamoja sub-region include:(a) Abim District (b) Amudat District (c) Kaabong District (d) Kotido District (e) Moroto District (f) Nakapiripirit District (g) Napak District. According to the 2002 national census, Karamoja sub-region was home to close to one million people, at that time.
In 1991, the national population census determined the district population at about 11,340. The 2002 national census estimated the population in the district at approximately 63,600. The district population was determined to be growing at an annual rate of 6.1%, between 2002 and 2012. In 2012, the population of Amudat District was estimated at about 113,700. In 2013, the district population, was estimated at about 143,300